THE COMPLEX SENTENCES WITH AN ADVERBIAL CLAUSE OF COURSE, CONDITION, RESULT AND PROPORTION IN ENGLISH AND UZBEK LANGUAGES

Akhmedova S.T.

Tashkent State Pedagogical University, Uzbekistan

 

Сложноподчиненных предложений с обстоятельственные пункте разумеющееся, условие, результат  и пропорциям на английском и узбекском языках

 

As  a  result  of  obtaining  independence  teaching  and  learning  foreign languages in Uzbekistan became of great importance. This is the what was said about it by President I.A.Karimov :”Currently it is difficult to assess the value of a profound knowledge of foreign of our people for our country which is striving to take a worthy  place in the world community; for our nation sees its great future in harmony and cooperation with foreign partners.

In the beginning of the article let’s know what is Adverbial clause of course, condition, result and proportion in English and Uzbek languages?  Let’s analyze the points which some professors have given their issues.

Professor of philological science, Utkir Yusupov points that an Adverbial Clause of cause expresses the cause of the event denoted by the principal clause. The meaning of the English complex sentences with an adverbial clause of cause is expressed by simple sentences with an adverbial modifier of reason. For instance, “As he was sick, he did not participate in the exhibition”.

So if we compare with Uzbek: “as I was sick I couldn’t participate”  Kasal bo’lganim uchun qatnasholmadim or kasal bo’lib qatnasha olmadim or kasalligim uchun qatnasha olmadim.

In addition, in case of the usage of the conjunctions as, since, because it may be prepositional or postpositional depending on the rheme and stylistic requirements.

In Uzbek subordinate clause is also prepositional except the case when the conjunctions chunki, negaki, sababki, zeroki are used.

So there is adverbial clause of condition in English grammar. Adverbial clause of condition demonstrate the condition, which is necessary for the realization of the action expressed in the principal clause. In English, they are introduced by:

  • The conjunctions if, unless, supposing that, in case and others.

For instance, if  you  hadn’t  gone  to the conference  yesterday,  they  should  have  appreciated  your article.

  • Inversion + correlative use of verbs of principal and subordinative clauses expressing unreality.

Were he my friend, I should except his help

  • Inversion + analytic form of the suppositional mood in the subordinative clause.

Should you meet her tell her to come.

In addition to my words, in Uzbek the principal clause may be one member sentence li, zo’r a, yaxshi, yomon,  bo’ldi,  bo’lgani

Koshi bu ko’z ko’radigan bo’lsa (Oydin)

Zo’r a mening ham omadim kelsa

In some complex sentences conditional relation co-occur with other stylistic relations- attributive, temporal, local and etc.

E.g. Kim o’sha yerda qolsa, u mening do’stim emas (complex sentence with a subject clause)

And about  adverbial clause  of  purpose  state  the purpose  of the  action  of  the  principal  clause.  They are  introduced  by  the  conjunctions  in order  that,  so  that,  that,  lest,  so,  so  as,  and  in  case  in English, deb, deya,  deyishib,  uchun,  toki   in Uzbek. Example, I packed him a little food so he would not get hungry Take   your coat in case it should rain.

Example in  Uzbek,  Sirimizni  ochib  berishmasin  deyishib  uni  bir  qancha  vaqt  ushlab  turishdi  (S.Ayniy) Vatan  ozod,  turmush  farovon  bo’sa  deya  mehna   qilamiz  (Uyg’un)

In  English  adverbial  clause  of  purpose  are  postpositive,  in  Uzbek  they  may  be  prepositive,  interpositive  and  postpositive  depending  on  the  used  prepositions.  In  case  of  the  usage  of  the  prepositional  toki  it  is  postpositive,  in order  cases  it  is  prepositive  or  interpositive. In  the  poetry  the  position  of  the  adverbial  clause  of  purpose  is  unpredictabus:

Har  kishi  ter  to’kib  qiladi  mehnat,  xalqimiz  turmushi  obod  bo’lsin  deb  (G’.Gulom).

The  adverbial  clause  of  purpose  having  the  forms  might+Inf, could+Inf,should+ Inf, would  + Inf  expressing  unreality  cause  interlanguage  interferences  when  Uzbek  student  speak  English.

This  type  of  adverbial  clause  denotes  the  result  of  the  intensive

Action, quality or state expressed in the principal clause.

The  load  was  so  heavy,  that  he  could  not  lift  it

Yuk shunchalik  og’ir  ediki,  u  uni  ko’tara  olmadi.

Adverbial  clause  of  result  is  near  to  course  in  their  meanings. Logically they both express cause- effect relation. For example, in  the  sentence  “it  was  so  cold,  that  we  had  to  stop  the  game.  So  there  are  two  rhemes  in  complex  sentences  with  an  adverbial  clause  of   result,  in  complex  sentences  with  an  adverbial  clause  of  cause  there  

References

  1. Каримов И.А. Гармонично развитое поколение –основа прогресса Узбекистана.-Т., Шарк, 1998
  2. Ю.Голицинский Грамматика. Санкт-Петербург 2008
  3. Internet www. Google.com
  4. Utkir Yusupov Contrastive  Linguistics  of  the  English  and  Uzbek  Languages “Akademnashr”, 2013

 

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