Sirojov O.O., Nam T.O.
Tashkent chemical-technological institute, Uzbekistan
Интересы Узбекистана в восстановлении Великого шелкового пути
Буюк ипак йўлини қайта тиклашда Ўзбекистоннинг манфаатлари
The Silk Road is the road which is known by everyone all over the world. From age to age it connected the East and West, enriching the culture of different countries, importing not only goods but also new knowledge, philosophies and even religions, going from antic Rome to the ancient capital of Japan, Nara.
The territory of modem Uzbekistan contained very important stops along the path of the ancient Silk Road. The Uzbek cities of Samarkand, Bukhara, Khiva, Tashkent, Termez and others were like blooming oases on the ancient Silk Road. Nowadays, these cities still attract thousands of visitors to their important historic landmarks left from Silk Road’s times. The state-owned Uzbekistan Railways offers touristic packages to the ancient Silk Road cities of Bukhara and Samarkand that include railway ticket and city sightseeing tours Tourism is an important sector that could revive Uzbekistan as an important link along the path of new Silk Road.
On June 22, 2014, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) named the Silk Road a World Heritage Site at the 2014 Conference on World Heritage.
The East – West Road, entitled “Silk Road” had several lines and branches. But on the verge of old and new eras the most significant ways became the southern and northern roads. Northern road ran along the southern Tien Shan mountain edge along the Tarim river, turning to the Ferghana.
Valley and Central Asian interfluve, after that it went through the Volga downstream and the Northern Black Sea reaching the Greek colonies. On the caravans road a variety of trade and craft settlements, caravanserai grew up: rich cities were arisen such as Merv in Turkmenistan.
Modern independent states of Central Asia have become active participants in the various projects of revival of the Great Silk Road to encourage economic and political cooperation of the young states of Central Asia among themselves and with developed countries in Europe and Asia-Pacific. One of the priority issues for the Central Asian states to develop transport corridors to the sea ports, international markets, building new alternative oil and gas pipelines. As is known, the leading countries of the region – Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan have large reserves of hydrocarbons, and the diversification of energy supplies to the world market is very important. Recent decades have dramatically increased geo-strategic importance of Central Asia in international relations, in connection with the updating of a number of international and regional processes, including security issues and the Greater Middle East. International relations of the late twentieth-early XXI century is also characterized by accelerated processes of economic and political regionalization in different parts of the world. It should be noted that the integration of Central Asia into the world economy, the search for their own place in the international arena, including in regional and world politics takes place in a globalizing world economy and politics. Globalization is having an increasingly profound impact on the socio-economic, military, political and other spheres of human life, including the nature of international affairs. Linking into a single network, all new countries, regions and whole continents, the global economy has an impact on the nature, intensity, duration bilateral and multilateral relations. However, the global financial crisis of 2008 had a significant negative impact on the global economy, suggesting the need for specific regulation of the market economy.
Significance of the Great Silk Road in the development of the nation’s relations trends of a broad international and regional cooperation is consistent with the revitalization project of the Silk Road provides for the creation of new opportunities for the development of trade relations between Asia and Europe, combining a plurality of the efforts of countries that are at different levels of economic development and their differing political order. However, the development strategy of the Great Silk Road will certainly have to be taken into account the experience of the economic crises of the last decade. At present, the Great Silk Road has become a global brand, the name of which have been used in many national and international documents and programs. In particular, we can mention “Silk Road Strategy Act” of the US Congress adopted in March 1999, on the development of regional cooperation in Central Asia and South Caucasus. Various economic and energy projects in China to revive the «Great Silk Road», a project of NATO Virtual Silk Highway, aimed at reviving the “Great Silk Road”, Japanese foreign policy strategy “Silk Road” and many others. It should be noted that in the late 90’s the last century in order to accelerate the development of the communication strategy of the Great Silk Road has been developed “The concept of the formation of a regional space of trust.” Currently, however, there is need for a new concept in international (UN) and regional (SCO) organizations, that we would be called “The concept of a broad partnership on the Silk Road.” This concept could be a logical extension of the concept of a regional space of trust and a wide range of cooperation between the countries on the Silk Road, including cooperation in the communication, economic, political, educational and cultural area. As noted above, the Central Asian countries to develop transport communications is critical to the economic, geographic and strategic points of view. Of particular note is the geo-strategic importance of Central Asia, caused by the presence of large reserves of raw energy, the strategic interests of the major powers and, of course, the problem of the stabilization of Afghanistan. These factors contribute to increased awareness and revitalization of big states – Russia, the US, China, India, as well as major international and regional organizations. Currently, Central Asia has a large transport and transit potential and Uzbekistan would be included in the process successfully.